Chapter 9: Fueling the Functions: The Digestive System Summary


  • Digestion is the splitting of large food molecules into smaller molecules that are usable to cells.
  • Deglutition involves swallowing of food into the stomach from the mouth.
  • Absorption is the movement of digested food through the intestines to blood.
  • Egestion is the elimination of undigested food from the digestive tract.
  • The gut is formed from the endoderm.
  • The urogenital and anal structures develop opposite to the ectoderm depression called proctodaeum.
  • Food movement through the digestive tract starts from the mouth and ends in the large intestines then it is excreted through the anus.

The vestibule

  • This is the area between cheeks, dental ashes, and lips.
  • The oral cavity is the part inside the dental ashes.
Getting into the vestibule
  • A mucous membrane covers the inner surface of the lips.
  • The mucous membranes have labial glands that secrete mucously.
  • The cheeks contain buccinators’ muscles along with a buccal pad.
  • The buccinator’s muscles retain food between teeth for easier chewing.
  • The parotid gland is also located away from the cheek.
  • Other salivary glands include sublingual and submaxillary glands.
  • Dental arches are produced by the lower jaw, upper jaw, gingivae, and teeth on all the jaws.
  • Teeth are produced from sockets.
Parts of a tooth
  • Crown
  • Neck
  • Root
Types of teeth
  • Incisors
  • Canines
  • Premolars
  • Molars

The tongue

  • It has intrinsic and extrinsic muscles that promote chewing, swallowing, and speech articulation.
  • The extrinsic muscles move the tongue in different directions.
    • They come from outside the tongue.
    • They bind to the mandible, hyoid and styloid processes.
  • The intrinsic muscles are a group of muscles that change the shape of the tongue for chewing, swallowing, and talking.
  • Some papillae cover the forward upper surface of the tongue:
    • Filiform papillae: They are brush-like and cover the tip, dorsum, and lateral tongue margins. They are many in the tongue and they lack taste buds.
    • Fungiform papillae: They have a mushroom-like shape spread among filiform papillae.
    • Vallate papillae: they are 12 I number on the tongue and surround a V-shaped structure called sulcus terminalis.

Salivary glands

  • They produce saliva.

Functions of saliva

  1. It lubricates and dissolves food.
  2. Has ptyalin (salivary amylase) enzymes that promote starch digestion.
  3. Lubricates and moistens the lips and mouth.
  4. Removes foreign molecules and epithelial cells from the mouth.
  5. Produces thirst sensations.

Swallowing of food

  • It occurs in the following three steps:
    • The tip of the tongue is raised, it pushes against the palate, food slides at the back of the tongue and enters the pharynx.
    • Tensor muscles make the palate tight, levator muscles raise, the nasopharynx is then sealed from the oropharynx.
    • A bolus moves down the esophagus.

The stomach

  • It has three smooth muscle layers covered with a mucous membrane and a peritoneum.
  • The mucous membrane of the stomach contains mucous glands which include:
    • Cardiac glands
    • Pyloric glands
    • Fundic lands
  • The cells found in the stomach mucosa include:
    • Mucous cells that secrete mucous that protect the organ from acidity.
    • Chief cells which produce pepsinogen and renin for protein catabolism.
    • Parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid that activates pepsinogen into pepsin enzymes for protein digestion.

The small intestines

  • It is the region where more digestion and nutrient absorption occurs.
  • The regions of the small intestine include the following:
    • Duodenum: It receives partially digested food.
      • Its acidity activates it to produce enterocrinin hormone which regulates intestinal juice secretion, pancreatic juice and bile juice from the liver.
      • It has brunners that produce alkaline mucous.
    • Jejunum: This region has villi and many large circular folds that decrease by number in the direction of the ileum.
    • Ileum: It contains lymph node aggregates. It opens into large intestines cecum through the ileocaecal valve.
  • The intestinal juice has the following enzymes:
    • Enterokinase which can combine with trypsinogen to form active trypsin.
    • Erepsins(proteolytic enzymes) separate amino acids by breaking polypeptide bonds.
    • Inverting enzymes break down disaccharides into monosaccharides.

The liver

  • It has two lobes, the left, and the right lobe.
  • It is made up of cuboidal cell rows.
The functions of the liver
  • Synthesis of blood plasma proteins like albumin.
    • It stores mineral glucose and vitamins.
    • Metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
    • Filtration and excretion of toxins and red blood cells that not functioning.

The pancreas

  • It acts like an endocrine and exocrine gland.
  • It releases hormones that do not use ducts to get into the bloodstream.
  • It produces enzymes that digest all foods.
  • Enzymes secreted from the pancreas include trypsin, pancreatic lipase, and nucleases.

The large intestines

  • It is approximately 3 inches wide.
  • It contains a  layer of longitudinal muscles.
  • It performs drying out of materials and water reabsorption
  • It does not perform any digestive function.
  • It does not possess any intestinal glands.
  • It produces mucus only.


Absorbs minerals, vitamins from the food you eat,
builds tissues and fuel for cellular work

Six nutrients-
carbohydrates(wheat, rice,turns to sugar monosacharides,fats (oils),protein(meat, nuts,tofu) turn into amino acids that build there own type of proteins, minerals, water

After the food is digested certain cells absorb the small molecules, then circulatory system transports nutrients through body.

Last stage where undigested food passes out of the body

WhaT Happens chemically at the end of digestion ?
carbohydrates are hydrolyzed to monosaccharides. Monosaccharides provide your cells with a source of energy

How long does it take for waste material to travel through the colon?
It generally takes 12 to 24 hours for waste material to travel through the colon

Six main organs make up the alimentary canal:
the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine

Accessory glands and organs include:
the salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder, which secrete digestive juices into the alimentary canal.

What do epithelial tissues do?
lines the alimentary canal. One function of the epithelial cells is to secrete mucus that lubricates the canal and helps prevent the body from digesting itself.

Despite the mucous layer, the epithelial cells in the stomach are constantly eroded how often must they regenerate?
through mitosis they completely replace your stomach lining every three days

What is ingestion?
it normally is accomplished by taking in the substance(food) through the mouth into the gastrointestinal tract, such as through eating or drinking.

What is the difference between chemical and mechanical digestion?
Your teeth and tongue are responsible for mechanical digestion (Figure 29-4). The various shapes of different types of teeth cut, smash, and grind food into smaller pieces. This makes the food easier to swallow and exposes more surface area to digestive enzymes.

Chemical digestion also begins in your mouth. In a typical day, salivary glands in your mouth region secrete more than one liter of liquid. This liquid, called saliva, contains digestive enzymes,

alimentary canal:
digestive tube that extends from the mouth to the anus

liquid secreted into the mouth that contains mucus and digestive enzymes that start chemical digestion

chewed clump of food that leaves the mouth and travels through the alimentary canal

Gastric Juices-
-Mix of mucus,enzymes, hydrolic acids.
-Breaks apart cells in food,kills bacteria
-Bathes bolus after efter enters stomack

The junction in the throat of the alimentary canal and the trachea
The junction in the throat of the alimentary canal and the trachea

elastic, muscular sac where some chemical and some mechanical digestion take place

largest organ in the body; performs many functions such as producing bile(digestive juice), storing glucose as glycogen, and transforming ammonia to urea

organ that stores bile from the liver and releases it into the small intestine(duodenom)

Chyme has a low pH that is countered by the production of bile,
helping to further digest food.
Chyme is also part liquid and part solid: a thick semifluid mass of partially digested food and digestive secretions that is formed in the stomach and intestine during digestion

gland that makes digestive enzymes(pancreatic juices) and secretes them into the small intestine; makes the hormones insulin and glucagon and secretes them into the blood
-pancreatic juice neutralizes chymeand has enzymes that break down proteins carbs and liquids

The middle and longest part of the large intestine

finger like projection of the inner surface of the small intestine that functions in absorbing nutrients
-sugar and amino acids are abdorbed into bloodstream through capillaries in each villi.

undigested food material and other waste products that exit the body through the anus

digestions begins here

salivary glands
glands of the mouth that produce saliva, a digestive secretion

an enzyme found in saliva starts to breaks down some of the carbohydrates before leaving the mouth

a muscular tube in chest that food flows down

involuntary muscular waves that force food down through the esophagus to the stomach

small intestine
the longest part of the alimentary canal, where most of the chemical breakdown and absorbtion of food take place.
The small intestine is highly specialized for absorbing nutrients into the circulatory and lymphatic systems for transport
-first part(duodenum) aids in digestion
-the rest of small intestine deals with absorption of

first part of small intestines, most digestion takes place, chemicals released from liver, gall bladder, and pancreas

large intestine
removes water from the undigested matter and form solid waste that can be excreted. a major function of the large intestine is to reabsorb water.
-at end of digestion carbs turn into monosaccharides (simple organic sugars)
-monosaccharides create chains of carbon atoms to make other organic molecules

What is the digestive system?
The body’s breathing system
The body’s system of nerves
The body’s food-processing system
The body’s blood-transporting system
The body’s food-processing system

Digestion begins in the mouth. Which of the following statement is INCORRECT?

The tongue aids in the digestion of the food.

The saliva changes some of the starches in the food to sugar.

The tongue keeps the food in place in the mouth
while the food is being chewed.

The digestive juices can react more easily with the food when chewed.
The tongue aids in the digestion of the food.

Where does food pass through between the mouth and the stomach?
The gullet
The rectum
The small intestine
The large intestine
The gullet

Our throat divides into two separate tubes: the windpipe and the gullet. What prevents food from entering the windpipe?
The uvula
The tongue
The trachea
The epiglottis
The epiglottis

What happens when food reaches the stomach?

Nothing. No digestion occurs in the stomach.

The food moves quickly into the small intestine.

Juices mix with the food and stomach muscles squeeze it.

The food is completely digested and is absorbed
by tiny blood vessels in the walls of the stomach.
Juices mix with the food and stomach muscles squeeze it.

Where does the partly-digested food (in liquid form) go after it leaves the stomach?
The gullet
The appendix
The small intestine
The large intestine
The small intestine

How does digested food finally reach the bloodstream?

It passes through the gullet into the blood.

It is absorbed into the blood through blood vessels.

It is absorbed into the blood through the walls of the lungs.

It passes from the small intestine into the large
intestine, then into the blood.
It is absorbed into the blood through blood vessels.

The digestive system processes food into usable and unusable materials. The usable materials are sent to the body’s cells as food. What happens to unusable materials?
It goes into the pancreas to await disposal.
It goes to the right ventricle to await disposal.
It goes into the large intestine to await disposal.
It goes into the small intestine to await disposal.
It goes into the large intestine to await disposal.

Solid waste leaves the body through the rectum then the anus. Liquid waste leaves the body after passing through the …
kidneys and bladder
blood vessels and lungs
large intestine and bowel
small intestine and large intestine
kidneys and bladder

Digestion takes place in a long tube-like canal called the alimentary canal, or the digestive tract. Food travels through these organs in the following order:

Mouth, gullet, stomach, small intestine,
large intestine and rectum

Mouth, oesophagus, stomach, large intestine,
small intestine and rectum

Mouth, stomach, oesophagus, small intestine,
large intestine and rectum

Mouth, stomach, gullet, small intestine,
large intestine and rectum
Mouth, gullet, stomach, small intestine,
large intestine and rectum

Which of the following does NOT manufacture digestive juices?

The liver is located in the abdomen and performs many functions. Which of the following is NOT a function of the liver?
Storing food
Manufacturing insulin
Producing digestive juices
Healing itself when it is damaged
Manufacturing insulin

striated muscles in esophagus
acts voluntarily,you can control it

smooth muscle in esophagus
-muscle layers around esophagus acts involuntarily
-trigger swallowing reflex
-wave like motion to move bolus(large chunk of food) to stomach

elastic muscle can stretch to hold up to 2 Liters of food

gastric juices and pepsin
gastric juice-combo of mucus,enzymes, hydrochloric acid,kills bacteria and breaks down food
pepsin-gastric enzyme takes large molecules and breaks them down into smaller molecules(monomers)

pyloric sphincter

muscularvalve pushes the chyme through 2-6 hours after meal for stomach to empty

has no enzymes,prepares fats,like butter,ice cream to be digested since it is in large globs that need to be broken down

your bodies ability to mainstain balance(stability)between the its internal environment and the external ecosystem environment

What is the temperature your body must maintain to stay healthy(stable)?
98.6 Fahrenheit (37C)

Why is it important to keep our internal body temperature stable?
our tissues in our organs like stomach, lungs etc.can only survive with thesenarrow conditions.

How does our body regulate temperature if it is very cold or hot outside?
If we are hot we sweat to give off extra heat to keep our temperature balanced
-if we are cold we shiver to keep our internal balance.

What controls our external body temperature to be stable?
our brainsends chemical signals through are neuronsto signal muscles ans and molecules to make us sweat or shiver .

What part does hormones play in maintaining homeostasis?
hormones (signal molecules alerted by brain)are released by our glands into our blood to trigger responses.

What chemicals are exchanged between our internal body and our external surroundings?
Oxygen enters our body and is used by the cells in our organ tissues,then our cells release carbon dioxide and we release it back into our environment so their is a chemical exchange inside and outside our body to keep homeostasis.

Where does the external exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide happen?
inside interstitial fluid
that is surrounding the gaps between our internal cells and organ tissues

What is the job of interstitial fluid in our body?
-chemicals(oxygen,carbon dioxide)travel in this aqueous(watery solution)between your blood and cells in your organ tissues.

Does this chemical exchange only occur in one body system?
No. it happens in your respiratory(breathing)system,circulatory (blood movement through body) besides the digestive and excretory system.
Without the interstitial fluid to move the chemicals to keep balance(homeostasis) between our internal body(lungs,heart,etc.)and external environment would not happen.

What doe the integumentary system do?
the integumentary system is our bodies outer covering which forms a barrier between us and the external environment.without it we would not have homeostasis.

What is the largest most well known organ of the integumentary system?
the eperdermis(your outer layer of skin

Where is your epidemis(outer skin) alive?
the outer layer is mainly dead epithelial cells that flake off and are constantly replaced by new skin cells.

What is melanin?
melanin is a pigmented protein that gives your skin color,and lies in the bottom layer of your skin(epidermis)

bilateral symmetry
: plant and animal symmetry in which similar parts are arranged so that one and only one plane can divide the individual into identical or nearly identical halves – (split in half)

radial symmetry
: plant and animal symmetry in which similar parts are arranged in a balanced way around the center of the body

Central nervous system-
Includes spinal cord and brain in vertebrates(animals with a backbone)

peripheral nervous system-
the part of the nervous system that is outside the central nervous system and is made up of the autonomic nervous system, the spinal nerves, and the cranial nerves except the optic nerve

(in the body) a whitish fiber or bundle of fibers that transmits impulses of sensation to the brain or spinal cord, and impulses from these to the muscles and organs.

a thing or event that evokes a specific functional reaction in an organ or tissue.
“areas of the brain which respond to auditory stimuli

Sensory neurons

  1. Sensory neurons are nerve cells that transmit sensory information (sight, sound, feeling, etc.). They are activated by sensory input, and send projections to other elements of the nervous system, ultimately conveying sensory information to the brain or spinal cord.

mo•tor neu•ron

  1. a nerve cell forming part of a pathway along which impulses pass from the brain or spinal cord to a muscle or gland.

(of an action) performed without conscious thought as an automatic response to a stimulus.
“sneezing is a reflex

a short branched extension of a nerve cell, along which impulses(messages-like to take a step) received from other cells at synapses are transmitted to the cell body.

the long threadlike part of a nerve cell along which impulses are conducted from the cell body to other cells.


  1. the long threadlike part of a nerve cell along which impulses are conducted from the cell body to other cells.

a specialized cell transmitting nerve impulses in your body ; a nerve cell.

Intracellular digestion-
A form of digestion wherein the breaking down of materials into smaller components takes place inside the cell.

Extracellular digestion-
A form of digestion wherein the breaking down of materials into smaller, absorbable components takes place outside the cell.

food vac•u•ole
a vacuole which ingested(put in mouth) food is digested

a saclike cellular organelle that contains various hydrolytic enzymes

What is the difference between the gastrovascular cavity and the
alimentary canal?
The gastrovascular cavity is a structure found in primitive animal phlya. It is responsible for both the digestion of food and the transport of nutrients throughout the body. The cavity has only one opening to the environment. Food goes in and waste comes out that same opening, making it a two-way digestive tract.

By contrast, organisms that have a mouth on one end with an anus on the other end have a one-way digestive tract, called an alimentary canal. Food goes in the mouth, while waste comes out the anus.


  1. each of a large number of minute(smaller than villi indigestive system lining) projections from the surface of some cells

the red liquid that circulates in the arteries and veins of humans and other vertebrate animals, carrying oxygen to and carbon dioxide from the tissues of the body.

a hollow muscular organ that pumps the blood through the circulatory system by rhythmic contraction and dilation. In vertebrates there may be up to four chambers (as in humans), with two atria and two ventricles.

any of the fine branching blood vessels that form a network between the arterioles and venules.,a tube that has an internal diameter of hairlike

info received about changes in the environment through your peripheral nervous saystem like the color of a sunset,tap on shoulder

sensory receptors
specialized cells that receive stimuli about changes that effect your environment like a change in temperature

neurons totally inside your central nervous instead of in your outside environment systemthat for example help your body plan the meovements to sit, run etc

What are myelin sheaths and nodes ?
myelin sheaths are a thick coat of material that that insulates many of the axons of your neurons that send messages to your brain(looks like a long chain of beads).

nodes are the insulated(protected)spaces between the beads.

What does the central nervous system do and what is it?
CNS is the spinal cord and brain which sends information from your brain through your nervous system so you can think,dream,etc.

What does the spinal cord consist of?
-columns of vertebrae that form backbone
-fluid around cord to cushion it from injury and give it nutrients.
-motor neurons, and interneurons to relay messages from brain

What are the parts of the brain and their function?
cerebrum-largest part of brain, divided into 2 hemisheres
-left side controls the right side of the bodies movement and right side controls left part of body
-cerebral cortex- 40% of brains mass,divided into lobes that have different functions.

What does the left and right part of the brain control?
left side-logical thinking,problem solving,language
right side-creative thought and imagination

What is the corpus callosum?
this is bands ofof more than a 100 nerves that connect the left and right hemishere of your brain
-aids communication between two hemisheres of brain

What are the functions of each lobe in the cerebral cortex?
frontal lobe-controls voluntary muscle movements
-other lobes control senses like seeing feeling,etc
other ares control-reasoning,math abilities,language skills, art talent,imagination,personality traits -all makes each person unique

Where is the cerebellum and what does it do?
it is near the top of your spinal cord
-it allows you to coordinate your movements
-sensory receptors in your cerebellum tell your brain where your body parts are to create a plan to complete a total movement.

What are the structures in the brain stem?
medulla oblogata,,pons, midbrain it is located in the lower section of your brain.
it regulates sleep, breathing,and body movements from sensory and motor neurons sent to and from the brain.

Where is the thalamus in the brain and what does it do?
the thalamus is in the middle of the brain it both blocks and enhances some signals. parent sleeps through noisy street sounds but wakes when their baby cries.

What does your hypothalamus do in your brain?
the hypothalamus regulates body temp,hunger, thirst,blood pressure, emotions.mater of endocrine system”biological clock”keeps cycle of sleep ,eating pattern etc

Where are your memories stored and what are the two types of memory?
your limbic system in your brain connects your memories to your emotions and senses(ex memory grandma making apple pie with you as a child)

fluid connective tissue of the circulatory system; consists of blood cells and plasma

multi-chambered, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body

microscopic blood vessel that carries blood between an artery and a vein, allowing the exchange of substances between the blood and interstitial fluid

vessel that carries blood away from the heart to other parts of the body

vessel that returns blood to the heart

fluid similar to interstitial fluid that circulates in the lymphatic system

1.) What are the four main functions of the digestive system?

  1. ingestion
  2. digestion
  3. absorption
  4. elimination

2.) What is the alimentary canal? Give another name for it.
a. digestive tract (hollow tube from mouth to the anus) with accessory organs
b. gastrointestinal tract

3.) Define digestion. What are the two types?
a. the process by which food is broken down into smaller particles suitable for absorption
b. mechanical & chemical

4.) Which type would mastication fall under?

5.) Define absorption. Where along the digestive tract does the most absorption occur?
a. process where by the end products of digestion move across the digestive tract into the blood for distribution through out the body.
b. small intestine/duodenum

6.) Name the four layers of the digestive tract from innermost to outermost
muscle layer

7.) Which of the four layers above is responsible for peristalsis? What type of muscle is it?
a. muscle layer
b. smooth muscle

8.) What is the peritoneum? Which layer of the digestive tract is it an extension of? Name the peritoneal coverings of the abdominal organs.
a. outermost layer of the digestive tract
b. serosa becomes peritoneum
c. greater omentum (lacey apron)

9.) Name the five structures of the mouth. Which three structures help to form the bolus?
a. teeth, tongue, salivary glands, hard & soft palates, uvula
b. teeth, tongue and salivary glands form the bolus

10.) uvula
closes off nasal cavity while pushing food to the back of the mouth

10.) tongue

10.) teeth

10.) salivary glands
parotid, submandibular, sublingual

10.) hard palate
roof of mouth

11.) Name the three parts to the pharynx

  1. nasopharynx
  2. oropharynx
  3. laryngopharynx

12.) What movement enable one to swallow while standing on their head?

13.) What is the purpose of the esophagus? Which esophageal sphincter is associated with GERD?
a. food tube from the pharynx(throat) to stomach
b. lower esophageal sphincter

14.) Briefly explain GERD
reflux of stomach contents causes burning of esophagus (heartburn)

15.) Which nutrients are digested in the stomach? Which of these nutrients starts digesting in the mouth?
a. carbohydrates and protein
b. carbohydrates

16.) Name three regions of the stomach.

  1. fundus
  2. body
  3. pylorus

16.) What do we call the thick folds of the stomach?

17.) What is the name of the acid that is produced in the stomach? Which cells produce the acid? Why is it that the stomach does not digest itself?
a. hydrochloric acid
b. parietal cells
c. abundance of mucous/hella mucous

18.) The mixture of food that has been mixed and churned in the stomach is called

19.) vomiting is a reflex controlled by the
medulla oblongata

20.) contents of the stomach can be removed by inserting a
nasogastric tube

21.) Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) derives it’s name from which region of the stomach?

22.) Name the 3 regions of the small intestine. In which region does most digestion and absorption occur?
a. duodenum, jejunum, ileum
b. duodenum

23.) Which structure in the small intestine increases the surface area to allow more absorption
villi and microvilli

24.) Name the eight regions of the large intestines. Which region is the appendix attached?

  1. cecum
  2. ascending colon
  3. transverse colon
  4. descending colon
  5. sigmoid colon
  6. rectum
  7. anal canal
  8. anus

25.) One of the functions of the colon is to reabsorb water and electrolytes. What condition would be present if too little water is absorbed? too much?
a. diarrhea
b. constipation

26.) Which vitamins are produced in the colon?
K & some Bs

27.) How much gas per day is produced in the colon? Which gases are produced? What is another name for gas?
a. 500 ml
b. methane & hydrogen
c. flatus

28.) What are hemorrhoids?
varicose veins of the anus

29.) Describe the difference between chemical and mechanical digestion?
a. mechanical digestion – mastication of food (chewing)
b. chemical digestion – breaking down of food by chemicals (amylase, hydrochloric acid, bile)

30.) Which chemicals are involved in the following areas? Which nutrients are involved?
a. mouth – amylase – carbohydrates
b. stomach – hydrochloric acid, pepsin – carbohydrates & proteins
c. duodenum – brush border enzymes, pancreatic juices, bile – carbohydrates, protein fats

31.) Describe the mechanical digestion that occurs in the following areas. Which nutrients are involved?
a. mouth – mastication – carbohydrates
b. stomach – mixing, churning, pummeling – carbohydrates & protein
c. small intestines – peristalsis, segmentation – carbs, protein, fats
(fats are not digested anywhere else in the digestive tract but the small intestines)

32.) Name 3 accessory digestive organs. Which of the organs is involved with detoxification?

  1. liver
  2. gallbladder
  3. pancreas

33.) The largest digestive organ (gland) in the body is the

34.) Which function of the liver allows it to assist in fat digestion?
making & secreting bile

35.) What is the purpose of the gallbladder? Name the condition of having stones in the common bile duct?
a. stores bile (made by liver)
b. choledocholithiasis

36.) The pancreas produces enzymes that can break down all three major nutrients. Is this an endocrine or exocrine function?

  1. Define endocrine
    secretion of a substance directly into the blood stream
    endo = in

36.) Define exocrine
secretion of a substance into a duct
exo = out

37.) Name the six major nutrients.

  1. carbohydrates
  2. protein
  3. fat
  4. vitamins
  5. minerals
  6. water

37.) Which of the 6 nutrients breaks down into our major fuel source?
simple and complex sugars/carbohydrates

37.) What is the fuel source taken from carbohydrates?

38.) List the macronutrients in the order of body usage

  1. carbohydrates
  2. fats
  3. proteins

39.) Where are carbohydrates broken down in the digestive system?
small intestines

39.) Where are proteins broken down in the digestive system?
small intestines

39.) Where are fats broken down in the digestive system?
small intestines

40.) Which 3 nutrients make up the cell membrane?
lipids – fat
proteins – amino acids

41.) Which food sources could supply complete proteins?
animal source – meat, eggs, dairy

41.) Which food sources could supply incomplete proteins?
vegetable source – nuts, grains, legumes

42.) Which two food could a vegetarian combine to make a complete protein?
legumes/beans & rice

43.) How can you tell the difference between a saturated fat and an unsaturated fat at room temperature?
saturated fat – solid (butter, lard)
unsaturated fat – liquid (oil)

44.) Which vitamins are fat soluble?
A, D, E, K

45.) Name two normal body functions for which minerals are responsible, name the mineral responsible.

  1. water balance & nerves – sodium
  2. oxygen transport – iron
  3. muscle spasm – magnesium
  4. bone growth – calcium, phosphorus, manganese

45.) Abbreviations for minerals
Na – sodium
Fe – iron
Mg – magnesium
P – phosphorus
Ca – calcium
Mn – manganese

46.) What are some of the ways one could get enough water in their diets if they didn’t drink water?

  1. eating fruits and vegetables
  2. drinking juice
  3. decaffeinated tea
    (caffeine is a diuretic)

47.) How does the new food pyramid differ from the old one?
new takes body build & exercise into account

48.) How many calories are there in a gram of carbohydrates, fat, and protein?
carbs – 4
fat – 9
protein – 4

49.) Determine the number of calories in a serving of Ghirardelli chocolate if there are:
a. 13 grams of fat
b. 23 grams of carbohydrates
c. 2 grams of protein
a. 13 x 9 = ?
b. 23 x 4 = ?
c. 2 x 4 = ?
(do the math yourself)

50.) The basal metabolic rate (BMR) is responsible for which body function?

  1. breathing
  2. kidney function
  3. cardiac muscle contraction

50.) Define BMR
the amount of calories burned doing nothing.

51.) Name 4 factors affecting BMR

  1. age
  2. gender
  3. body surface
  4. emotions
  5. thyroid hormones

52.) How does one increase their metabolism?
exercise (legal)
cocaine (illegal)

53.) Define metabolism
all the chemical reactions that occur within cells

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